Review of Saltwater Slavery: A Middle Passage from Africa to American Diaspora

By Stephanie E. Smallwood. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007. ISBN-13: 978-0674030688p1

Centering her work on a prodigious study in primary sources, historian Stephanie E. Smallwood explores the life and experience of the trans-Atlantic slave. Smallwood’s Saltwater Slavery: A Middle Passage from Africa to American Diaspora examines pre-colonial slave trade narratives, with the swift transition to a new Eurocentric mindset. She focuses on the invaluable stories and recollections of the trans-Atlantic slaves, told through slave trader primary source material. Saltwater Slavery approaches the trans-Atlantic slave trade through a “quantitative and textual” approach (4). She pursues a prominent archival body of evidence to help readers understand the trauma African slaves bore witness to during their voyages across the Atlantic. Smallwood astutely stresses the psychological trauma of the individuals from the Gold Coast in Western Africa, bringing their valued social history to the center stage of the trans-Atlantic slave trade narrative.

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Review of Age of Ambition: Chasing Fortune, Truth, and Faith in the New China

ageofambition_mech_1.inddAge of Ambition: Chasing Fortune, Truth, and Faith in the New China. By Evan Osnos. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2014. ISBN: 9780-374-535278

The Red Dragon that is China has experienced such rapid growth and development that it now circles around the world majestically with plumes of industrious smoke flaring from its nostrils. In this sense, China is an elegant, yet dangerous beast. Like the mighty dragons of the eras before, it is both beautiful and scary. The long slender body of the Chinese dragon twists hither and thither. This flexibility is symbolic of the numerous changes that China has undergone and the ones that it will undergo in the future to ensure its success.

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Review of Grant

p3By Chernow, Ron. New York City, NY: Penguin Press, 2017. ISBN-13: 978-1594204876

Ulysses S. Grant was hailed as the hero of the Civil War yet history remembers him only as a drunkard. Grant lived in a time when alcohol was all over America, yet the side effect, alcoholism, was shunned. Ron Chernow focuses his book, Grant, on telling the story of Grant. A man from a small town who struggled all throughout his life, but ended up being the strategic genius who managed to bring the South to surrender when all other Union generals, specifically the ‘do nothing’ generals of the eastern war campaigns, failed to do so.

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Review of The Reaper’s Garden: Death and Power in the World of Atlantic Slavery

reaperBy Vincent Brown. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008. ISBN-13: 978-0674057128


The Atlantic World was steeped in violence and death: Europeans decimated native populations, tormented millions of souls through the Atlantic slave trade, and themselves were susceptible to new pathogens and resistance to their own brutal tactics. Over the past few decades scholars have become increasingly aware of the ways that violent cultural contact shaped the societies which formed around the Atlantic world. In British colonial Jamaica, a colony built on the coerced labor of hundreds of thousands of saltwater slaves, violence was Continue reading

Queer Clout: Chicago and the Rise of Gay Politics

queerQueer Clout: Chicago and the Rise of Gay Politics by Timothy Stewart-Winter is an invigorating history of how queer people developed political power in post-WWII America. Using Chicago as his case study, Stewart-Winter traces how the city’s queer community managed to move “from the closet to the corridors of power” (1). While tracing LGBTQ+ people’s political significance in Chicago, Stewart-Winter argues that the queer community mobilized to gain political influence in response to police brutality, economic discrimination, and social prejudice. To gain power, gay and lesbian people consciously chose to draw upon other social justice movements. Stewart-Winter credits anti-racist movements—mostly developed within the African American community—as a strong influence on queer activism. Queer Clout thus forwards that Chicago’s gay rights movement both focused on ending discriminations unique to queer people and developed connections to post-WWII identity-based movements.

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The Most Controversial Decision: Truman, the Atomic Bombs, and the Defeat of Japan; Hiroshima: Why America Dropped the Atomic Bomb


Miscamble, Wilson D. The Most Controversial Decision: Truman, the Atomic Bombs, and the Defeat of Japan. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011. ISBN-13: 978-0521735360


Takaki, Ronald. Hiroshima: Why America Dropped the Atomic Bomb. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1995. ISBN 13: 9780316831222

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Bomb Power: The Modern Presidency and the National Security State

By Gary Wills. Penguin Press HC. First Edition, 2010. ISBN: 978-1594202407

bombIn his book, Bomb Power: The Modern Presidency and the National Security State, Gary Wills demystifies the development of the first atomic weapon and adds to a growing body of scholarship whose broader aim is to document the expansion of executive power and the rise of the national security state. Wills artfully constructs a narrative of the Manhattan Project and links this monumental development to the excessive expansion of presidential powers, the pervasive uses of secrecy in the executive branch, and the rise of the national security apparatus. Wills begins his analysis with an inflammatory statement about the atomic bomb which summarizes his thesis: “The Bomb, altered our subsequent history down to its deepest constitutional roots, redefining the presidency in ways that the Constitution did not intend. It fostered an anxiety of continuing crisis, so that society was pervasively militarized. It redefined the government as a National Security State, with an apparatus of secrecy and executive control. It redefined Congress, as an executor of the executive. And it redefined the Supreme Court, as a follower of the executive” (1). Wills argues that the pursuit of atomic weaponry and its ultimate materialization resulted in the transformation of the executive branch, which gave the president an alarming amount of new powers and rendered the constitutional system of checks and balances idol. Wills begins to construct a picture of how the pursuit of atomic weaponry and methods used to obtain it became a paradigm in which future presidents used when carrying out foreign policy.

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